Anaesthesiology -Back to List-
who specialise in anaesthesiology are known as the Anaesthetist.
These are the doctors who specialise in administering the anaesthetic
agents. The nature of their job often involve looking after unconscious
patients and patients on various life supports and, because of this, the
Anaesthetist is often a very important member of the intensive care
team. The other area of great importance is in the area of pain management.
The Anaesthetists through their detailed knowledge in the action the
various drugs which can affect the nerves, an able to use this expert knowledge to control pain.
Cardiology -Back to List-
Cardiology is the area of medicine involved with the heart. Heart
disease is the commonest cause of death in Malaysia today. Patient with
heart disease usually complains of chest pain, shortness of breath,
swelling of ankles or legs or blackouts. Another common disease seen by
cardiologist is hypertension or high blood pressure. Disease of the
heart can now be treated by medicine, surgery or by putting a thin wire
in through a blood vessel in the groin or wrist and rectify the narrowing in
the artery that supply blood to the heart- angioplasty.
Cardiac Electrophysiology -Back to List-
Cardiac electrophysiology is the science of elucidating, diagnosing, and treating the electrical activities of the heart. The term is usually used to describe studies of such phenomena by invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of spontaneous activity as well as of cardiac responses to programmed electrical stimulation (PES). A specialist in cardiac electrophysiology is known as a cardiac electrophysiologist, simply an electrophysiologist. Cardiac electrophysiology is considered a subspecialty of cardiology. Cardiac electrophysiologists are trained to perform interventional cardiac electrophysiology studies (EPS) as well as surgical device implantations.
Cardiothoracic Surgery -Back to List-
The Surgeons who specialise in operating diseases of the heart, lungs
and the thoracic cage are known as Cardiothoracic Surgeon. This specialty
is dealing with a very wide range of problems affecting the lungs and
the heart and the tissues inside the thoracic cage. This is especially
so when the illness requires surgical intervention. The more prominent
illnesses that require the help of the Cardiothoracic Surgeon are Coronary
Artery bypass, repair of Vulvular Heart disease, Resection of lung especially
in Lung cancer etc. Sometimes surgical intervention is also needed in
order to find out the diagnosis of the disease process that affects
the organs in the chest.
Ear, Nose & Throat Surgery -Back to List-
Ear, nose, and throat surgery is the surgical treatment of diseases, injuries, or deformations of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck areas. The purpose of surgery to the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck is to treat an abnormality (defect or disease) in these anatomical areas. Ear surgery is usually performed to correct specific causes of hearing loss. Nose surgery can include different types of procedures necessary to treat sinus problems (sinus surgery). Throat surgery can include complicated procedures such as cancer of the larynx (laryngectomy), or more simple procedures such as surgical removal of the adenoids (adenoidectomy) or tonsils (tonsillectomy). Head and neck surgery may be necessary to remove a tumor or reconstruct an area after disfigurement from trauma or injury.
Gastroenterology -Back to List-
This discipline covers diseases of the digestive tract which comprises
the oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, the
liver, gallbladder, and the pancreas. Physicians who practice gastroenterology, ( which is therefore a sub-speciality
of internal medicine), are trained to investigate and treat patients
with these conditions.
Some of the symptoms that may show up include abdominal pain, vomiting,
abdominal swelling, jaundice, diarrhoea and bleeding. Certain gastroenterological diseases such as hepatitis (inflammation
of the liver ) require purely medical (i.e. non-operative ) treatment.
Other conditions eg. gastrointestinal bleeding may require combined
management by both physician and surgeon. Therefore in practice gastroenerologists
work closely with their surgical colleagues and will refer or accept
patients for consultation where appropriate.
General & Interventional Radiology -Back to List-
Interventional Radiology is a subspecialty of radiology in which minimally invasive procedures are performed using image guidance. Some of these procedures are done for purely diagnostic purposes (e.g., angiogram), while others are done for treatment purposes (e.g., angioplasty). Pictures (images) are used to direct these procedures, which are usually done with needles or other tiny instruments like small tubes called catheters. The images provide road maps that allow the Interventional Radiologist to guide these instruments through the body to the areas of interest.
Common interventional imaging modalities include fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
General Surgery -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in general surgery are known as Surgeons.
The Surgeons are well known for their skills in performing surgical
operation. Many individual surgeons in addition to their general surgical
skill would also have developed an interest in a field of their personal
liking. Examples are like colorectal surgery, endocrine surgery, and
in the recent years endoscopic- surgery and minimally- invasive surgery.
Besides these, surgeons are also familiar and skilled in performing diagnostic
and sometimes therapeutic endoscopic examinations.
Geriatric Medicine-Back to List-
Geriatric medicine is a branch of medicine concerned with all aspects of health and illness in elderly. Doctors who specialise in the health and illness of elderly are known as Geriatrician. They are specially trained to evaluate and manage the unique healthcare needs of elderly, alongside with prevevention of disease and disability in older people. Geriatricians are concerned with health problems that frequently affect older adults, such as falls osteoporosis, immobility, cognitive impairment (delirium and dementia), incontinence, medication side effects and managing multiple chronic conditions. Another important aspect of geriatric medicine is evaluating an elderly patient's ability to perform daily activities such as bathing, dressing, eating and assists them by co-ordinating rehabilitation of elderly people.
Internal Medicine -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in Internal medicine are generally known
as Physicians. They are skilled in using medications to treat all kinds
of ailments. In the course of their training to become physicians they
would also have learned many practical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.
Hence, many Physicians are skilled in performing endoscopic examinations,
ultrasound imaging, and the interpretation of test results.
Neonatology -Back to List-
Neonatology is a subspecialty of paediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units. The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or requiring special medical care due to prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, or birth asphyxias.
Neurosurgery -Back to List-
Neurosurgery is a surgical specialty that deals with the nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. Surgeon who practices in this field is known as neurosurgeon. Neurosurgical diseases that are commonly managed by neurosurgeons include traumatic head injury, cerebrovascular problems (haemorrhage and aneurysms), brain tumour, surgery for congential abnormalities, degenerative diseases of spine. Neurosurgeons play an important role in the management of brain injury especially when it comes to preventing further damage to the brain.
Nephrology -Back to List-
Nephrology is a specialty of internal medicine which involved the kidney function, kidney infection, autoimmune disease, electrolytes imbalance and renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
A nephrologist is a medical doctor who specialized in the care and treatment of kidney diseases. He treats acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and manages dialysis care for people with end stage renal disease. Procedures a nephrologist may perform include kidney biopsy and dialysis access insertion (temporary vascular access lines, tunnelled vascular access lines, peritoneal dialysis access lines).
Obstetrics & Gynaecology -Back to List-
Doctor who specialises in looking after female reproductive life
is known as Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. These two areas of work
often are fused and trained as one. Obstetrics is basically the specialty
that involve looking after the process of pregnancy and delivery in
the female patient while gynaecology involves the management of problems
that arise from the female reproductive organs. The field is obviously
very wide and the doctor in this field can expertly treat many seemingly
unrelated problems like urinary incontinence in female. The other very
important area often investigated and treated is infertility. Menopause
and women with other sex hormone imbalances can also be helped by getting
the right advice and treatment from the Gynaecologist.
Oculoplastic & Orbital Surgery-Back to List-
An oculoplastic and orbital surgeon is an ophthalmologist who performs cosmetic and reconstructive surgery of the periocular area, which includes the eyelids, orbit (bones and anatomic structures around the eyeball) and tear duct.
Oculoplastic surgery, the services provided are:
- Botox injection for wrinkles & blepharospasm
- Dermal filler for upper lid trough, tear trough, cheek, buccal , laugh lines, smile lines, lip & chin augmentation (cosmetic)
- Double eyelid surgery (cosmetic)
- Blepharoplasty for excess skin
- eyebag surgery (cosmetic)
- Ptosis correction including brow suspension techniques
- Brow lift
- Epiblepharon (eyelashes poking eyes secondary to lower lid inturning due to excess skin common among Chinese children) correction
- Abnormal lid position (entropion/ ectropion ) correction
- Oncology: tumour removal and reconstruction
- Lid fornix (eyelid pocket) reformation
- Evisceration/ enucleation
- Secondary orbital implant
Lacrimal surgery, the services provided are:
- External dacryocystorhinostomy (for blocked tear duct)
- Endonasal (scarless) dacryocystorhinostomy (for blocked tear duct)
- Lester Jones tube (for blocked upper tear duct)
Orbital surgery, the services provided are:
- Orbital biopsy (anterior & posterior i.e. deep eye socket behind eyeball)
- Orbital decompression (2 walls & 3 walls for thyroid eye disease)
- Orbital fracture repair
- Enophthalmos (sunken eyeball) correction
- Exenteration with skin graft (for extensive eye socket tumour )
Oncology -Back to List-
Oncology is a medical speciality focusing on the treatment of cancer of organs (solid
tumours). A physician that works in the field of oncology is called an Oncologist.
Proper diagnosis and staging, including clinical examination, blood, urine or other
body fluids investigations and histopathology examination, are carried out to come
out with suitable therapy for individual patient. The treatment options available are
surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy,
immunotherapy, and palliative care such as cancer pain management, release of pressure in closed compartments e.g cranium, spinal column,thorax etc.:-
Surgery is the mainstay in cancer management as it can extirpate bulk of
the disease. At times, surgery itself is sufficient to cure the cancer. Unfortunately,
often the disease tends to relapse despite complete excision. Therefore, further
treatment, known as, adjuvant treatment is necessary. Adjuvant treatment is
given in the absence of any detectable disease postsurgery with a view to “prevent”
recurrance disease or prolong recurrance-free survival.
Chemotherapy is the treatment of cancer using cytotoxic drugs. As these drugs are taken up by all growing cells in addition to cancer cells, the side effects do occur. Fortunately, medications which can counteract the adverse effects of chemotherapy are prescribed as well. As cancer cells are metabolically more
active than normal cells, cytotoxic drugs will preferentially kill more of the cancer
cells. Chemotherapy usually is by intravenous infusion (IV line) but some of them can be given orally.
Cancer cells can be killed by ionising radiation. There are many
sophisticated ways to selectively deliver radiation. By meticulous planning
(contouring, simulating etc), so that cancer site can be selectively targeted, sparing the surrounding normal tissue from the adverse effects of radiotherapy
There are specific receptors present on the cell membrane or inside of cancer cells, some drugs can selectively attach themselves to those receptors exerting cytotoxic effect or cytostatic effect on these cancerous cells with the normal cells being unaffected.
Examples of targeted therapy are Herceptin (Trastuzumab), Erbitux (Cetuximab),
Panatuzumab, Rituximab etc.
Some cancers like breast, prostate, thyroid cancers are
hormone-dependent. If specific hormone is blocked, those cancers can be controlled
with minimal side effects associated.
Recent advancement in cancer therapy enables the activation of immune systems to attack and kill the cancer cells. As immunotherapy is very
specific, only acting against cancer cells, the side effect is minimal.
Ophthalmology -Back to List-
The doctor who is specialised in treating eye conditions is known
as Ophthalmologist. He is trained to examine the eye in detail and to
make accurate diagnosis. He will then advise on the optimal treatment
for the condition with medication, surgery or both. Detailed examination
of the eye sometimes can also reveal underlying systemic illness like
diabetes, high blood pressure etc.
Orthopaedic Surgery -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in orthopaedics are known as Orthopaedic Surgeon.
The orthopaedic surgeons are skilled in treating diseases affecting
the bone, skeleto- muscular system and the joints. They are well known
for fixing fractured bones, they are also skilled in treating various
painful conditions due to degenerative changes or other pathological
processes that are affecting the bone, muscle or the joints.
Sports Injury Surgery -Back to List-
Sports injury surgery is a branch of orthopaedic surgery concerned with treating injuries involving the musculoskeletal that occur to athletes in major sporting events. In many cases, these types of injuries are due to overuse of a part of the body when participating in a certain activity. For example, runner’s knee is a painful condition generally associated with running, while tennis elbow is a form of repetitive stress injury at the elbow. Other types of injuries can be caused by a hard contact with something. This can often cause a broken bone or torn ligament or tendon.
Spine Surgery -Back to List-
Spine surgery is a branch of orthopaedic surgery to treat conditions of the spine.
Paediatrics -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in paediatrics are known as Paediatricians.
Paediatricians are skilled in treating illnesses that affect the children.
Special training is needed because many diseases that affect the children
can be very different from that of adults. Moreover, certain complications
may be very different, for instance the patients seen by the Paediatrician
may be affected by illnesses that are congenital or is hereditary. Another
example is that the young patients are still growing, hence the disease
process quite apart from causing problems to the particular system may
also disturb or delay the developmental process of the patient. Like
fields in medicine, the psychological and the social impacts for the
patient of any particular illness may also be very different from that
of adults. The Paediatrician who has his counterpart in the General
Physician is skilled in using medications in treating a very wide range
Paediatric Surgery -Back to List-
Surgeons who specialise in performing operations on newborns and
children are known as Paediatric Surgeon. After qualifying as a surgeon,
a paediatric surgeon has additional training to deal with many rare
and complicated conditions affecting young patients especially newborns.
These rare conditions are usually congenital problems affecting the
organs in the chest and abdomen especially those related to the intestine.
Not all surgical conditions in children need to be operated on and the
paediatric surgeon will be able to give the appropriate advice. He is
also able to perform diagnostic procedures such as endoscopy.
Pathology -Back to List-
Pathology is the study and diagnosis of diseases through examination of organs, tissues, bodily fluids and whole bodies (Autopsy). The term also encompasses the related scientific study of disease processes called General pathology. General pathology, also called investigative pathology, experimental pathology or theoretical pathology, is a broad and complex scientific field which seeks to understand the mechanisms of injury to cells and tissues, as well as the body’s means of responding to and repairing injury. This study includes cellular adaptation to injury, necrosis, inflammation, wound healing and neoplasia which facilitate the knowledge to diagnose diseases in humans. Medical pathology is divided in two main branches, Anatomical pathology and Clinical pathology. Medical pathologists are physicians who diagnose and characterize diseases in living patients by examining biopsies or body fluid. Most cancer diagnoses are made or confirmed by pathologists. Pathologists may also conduct autopsies to investigate causes of death. Forensic pathology is a branch of Pathology concerned with determining the cause of death by examination of a cadaver. The autopsy is performed by the pathologist at the request of a coroner usually during the investigation of criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. Forensic pathologists are also frequently asked to confirm the identity of a cadaver.
Plastic Surgery -Back to List-
The service provided can be divided into medical treatments, such as skin lumps & bumps, skin cancers and various other lesions of the skin including some congenital abnormalities, and cosmetic or aesthetic procedures. The cosmetic procedures offered include:
Botulinum toxin injections:
These are used for the treatment of fine lines & wrinkles. It can also be used to treat excess sweating under the arms (hyperhidrosis), muscle spasms eg blepharospasm and migraine.
The commonest filler used is Restylane (hyaluronic acid). This is used to fill furrows, dents & smaller defects.
The lasers we have are able to treat vascular lesions eg thread veins, spider veins, smaller leg veins and some vascular ‘stains’ of the skin. They are also able to treat pigmentation of the skin. The lasers are also used for hair removal.
Keloid scar treatment:
These are treated by a combination of methods including laser, injections and surgery where needed.
Eyelid surgery (Blepharoplasty):
Surgery of the upper eyelids is performed to remove excess skin or to create the ‘double eyelid’. Lower eyelid surgery is performed to remove the lower lid ‘eye-bags’. Both upper & lower eyelid surgery can be performed under local or general anaesthesia. They may also be performed together with other procedures.
Nose surgery (Rhinoplasty):
Surgery to change the shape of the nose is always performed under general anaesthetic. Surgery may involve making the nose smaller (reduction) or making it larger (augmentation). Enlarging the nose is mostly done to increase the height of the nose. The shape of the nose, particularly the tip, may also be refined with either of these operations.
Face & neck lift:
As we get older, the skin & soft tissues of the face & neck lose their elasticity. As a result, they begin to sag. This can be corrected by means of a face lift. The neck is often tightened as part of this operation.
If the ears are protruding from the side of the head they can be set back in a more satisfactory position. This operation is called a pinnaplasty or otoplasty.
Women who want larger breasts can have these enlarged by inserting a prosthesis either under the breast tissue or under the muscle of the chest.
Some women as they get older develop excess skin in the upper arms. These are often called ‘bat–wings’. These can be reduced by removing the excess skin and fat.
Unattractive scars can often be improved by revising them surgically.
Prosthodontics -Back to List-
A Prosthodontist is a Dental Surgeon who specialise in procedures such as union and bridgework, denture work, tooth implants, root canal
treatment and other cosmetic dentistry and restorative dentistry
like fillings and extractions.
Psychiatry -Back to List-
Doctors who specialise in psychiatry are known as Psychiatrist.
A Psychiatrist is skilled in treating mental illnesses. The recent advances
in the field of psychiatry has equipped the Psychiatrist with a wide
range of medications that are able to restore the imbalance to the chemicals
in the brain when there is mental illness. A Psychiatrist is also trained
in treating patients who become mentally disturbed due to certain traumatic
life events by guiding and identifying the problems for the patient-
Respiratory Medicine -Back to List-
Respiratory, pulmonology on chest medicine is a specialty that deals with diseases of the lungs and the respiratory tract. This specialty is considered a branch of internal medicine and is closely related to intensive care medicine and thoracic surgery. When dealing with patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Respiratory medicine is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases as well as secondary prevention as in tuberculosis.
Rheumatology-Back to List-
This specialty encompasses diseases of the joints and soft tissue including ligaments, tendons and muscle. Clinicians who specialize in rheumatology are called rheumatologists who treat a wide range of diseases. Some of the conditions investigated and treated include rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, gout, tennis elbow and carpal tunnel syndrome. Many though not all, of these diseases are multisystem disorders and may affect other organs including the eyes, skin, lungs and cardiovascular system. Often these are chronic, long term conditions that require long term treatment to reduce and control the disease activity e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, but other conditions like carpal tunnel syndrome may be resolved relatively quickly.
Urology -Back to List-
Urology is the surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological disorders. The organs covered by urology include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male reproductive organs (testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and penis). Urology combines management of medical (i.e., non-surgical) problems such as urinary infections, and surgical problems such as the corrections of congenital abnormalities and the surgical management of cancers.